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世界无人化农业发展现状

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World unmanned agriculture development status quo

近年来,数字化、自动化、智能化技术在农业领域应用步伐加快,机械化生产与信息化技术深度融合,初步形成了无人化农业概念,引发社会广泛关注。无人化农业系统包括生产信息采集设施、生产作业装备和生产管理平台等三大组成部分,以全过程智能化管理、精准化作业为核心,通过大数据指导生产运行,能够实现节本、高效、精准、绿色,形成类似于无人工厂的农业生产方式,是现代农业的一个重要发展方向。发达国家无人化农业研发起步早,在一些领域和环节虽有推广,但应用还不广泛。我国在这方面起步较晚,但进展速度较快,处于世界前列。

In recent years, the application of digital, automatic and intelligent technologies in the agricultural field has been accelerated, and mechanized production and information technology have been deeply integrated, initially forming the concept of unmanned agriculture, which has aroused wide social concern. Unmanned agricultural system including production information collection facilities, production equipment and production management platform and so on three components, with the whole process of intelligent management, accurate operation as the core, through big data to guide the production operation, saving, can realize cost, efficient, accurate, green, similar to unmanned factory mode of agricultural production, is an important development direction of modern agriculture. Unmanned agricultural research Unmanned agricultural research veloped countries. Although it has been promoted in some fields and links, it is not widely used. China started late in this respect, but the progress speed is fast, in the forefront of the world.

无人化大田种植(无人农场)Unmanned field planting (unmanned farm)

大田种植作业工况条件复杂,实现无人化作业难度较大。北美、西欧具备基础但需求不紧迫,日韩处于萌芽阶段,我国正逐步兴起。

北美、西欧、澳洲等发达国家已经开始应用自动化装备开展农业生产,具备了较为广泛的技术和装备基础,但对发展无人化农业还没有明显需求。美国大中型农场都应用自动导航驾驶系统来实现拖拉机、联合收割机等自动化作业,预计2022年美国农机自动导航驾驶系统普及率将达到90%。在产品创新方面,约翰迪尔、凯斯纽荷兰在2016年分别都推出了无人化概念拖拉机及配套农具,这种拖拉机配备全方位感应和探测装置,能够侦测并避开障碍物,具备远程配置、监测及操作功能,在生产平台的管理和调度下可实现全天候无人作业,不过目前并未商业化应用。

North America, Western Europe, Australia and other developed countries have begun to apply automatic equipment to carry out agricultural production, with a relatively extensive technology and equipment foundation, but there is no obvious demand for the development of unmanned agriculture. Large and medium-sized farms in the United States use automatic navigation and driving systems to realize automatic operations such as tractors and combine harvesters. It is expected that the penetration rate of automatic navigation and driving systems for agricultural machinery in the United States will reach 90% in 2022. In terms of product innovation, John Deere, Case Holland in 2016 were introduced unmanned concept tractor and supporting tools, the tractor equipped with comprehensive induction and detection device, can detect andavoid obstacles, with remote configuration, monitoring and operation function, under the production platform management and scheduling can realize all-weather unmanned operation, but is not commercial application.

日本、韩国等生产规模较小的国家和地区,农业生产受劳动力成本高企因素制约,开始推广应用自动化农机产品,无人化农机装备快速发展阶段。日本主要农机企业基于“1个机手、2台机器”设想,推出了带有高精度卫星定位导航功能和遥控功能的自动化农机产品。2018年6月以来,久保田公司先后上市了带有自动驾驶功能的水稻收获机、拖拉机,以减轻机手长时间作业体力负担、提高农机作业精度。井关、洋马等企业上市了类似产品,积极扩大相关技术推广应用规模。

agricultural machinery products, and unmanned agricultural machinery equipment is in the rapid development stage. Based on the assumption of "one machine hand and two machines", major Japanese agricultural machinery enterprises have launched automatic agricultural machinery products with high-precision satellite positioning and navigation function and remote control function. Since June 2018, Kubota company has listed rice harvesters and tractors with automatic driving function, in order to reduce the physical burden of long-time operation and improve the accuracy of agricultural machinery operation. Jingguan, Yangma and other enterprises have listed similar products and actively expand the scale of promotion and application of related technologies.

我国大田种植自动化农机装备在技术创新、制造水平和产品可靠性等方面与发达国家有一定的差距,在装备质量、机具种类、智能化水平上发展升级趋势加快。总体来看,我国农机自动导航驾驶系统已经在大田种植中开始规模化推广应用,装配方式由购买后自行加装向出厂前标配发展,受技术成熟度、决策模型精度、机具质量和使用成本等方面制约,我国自动化农机正处于单机自动化作业向多机协同智能化作业发展的阶段,无人化农机应用逐渐兴起。

field planting automatic agricultural machinery equipment and developed countries in terms of technological innovation, manufacturing level and product reliability, and the development and upgrading trend of equipment quality, types of machinery and intelligence level is accelerated. Overall, the agricultural machinery automatic navigation driving system has started in the field planting scale application, assembly way after the purchase to the factory standard development, the technology maturity, decision model accuracy, machine quality and use cost restriction, automatic agricultural machinery is in the single machine automation to more collaborative intelligent operation development stage, unmanned agricultural machinery application gradually rise.

近两年,我国无人驾驶农机创新产品相继面市。“东方红”“欧豹”无人驾驶拖拉机、“谷神”无人驾驶联合收割机已开展作业示范,并实现了收割机与运粮车的主从导航无人驾驶;“丰疆”高速无人驾驶插秧机实现了水田原地掉头对行、秧盘自动提升等功能,已在多地投入水稻插秧生产实践。黑龙江、新疆、江苏、山东等多个粮棉主产省份相继开展了全过程无人化农业生产试验。以新疆生产建设兵团为例,其数字农业试点建设项目已经形成了棉花耕、种、管、收全程数字化生产管理模式,应用农机自动驾驶装备和无人化农机取得了显著效果,降低了农机作业驾驶难度和劳动强度,提升了作业效率,即使是新手驾驶员也能和老机手一样作业又快又好。当地棉花种植全部使用卫星导航自动驾驶技术,在夜间或能见度较差的天气作业也可做到准确对行,整个作业季每台机具较手动驾驶平均多播种1000亩,原先人工驾驶播种10行的地块采用自动驾驶可播种11行,土地利用率可提高0.5%—2.5%,棉花精准施肥能够节肥15%、单产增加5%左右。

值得注意的是,在无人化大田种植领域,我国植保无人飞机发展一枝独秀,受到世界关注。近年来,农用无人飞机应用普及较快,可搭载植保、影像获取、播种等多种装置完成不同作业,主要应用在农业航空植保领域。国际上,美国、日本的航空植保技术较为发达。日本应用油动单旋翼机型较早,在作业管理、发动机技术等方面处于国际领先。美国农用飞机以有人驾驶固定翼飞机为主,能够实现高效作业,无人飞机方面研究也比较多,但受安全限制在农业植保中鲜有应用。

of unmanned field planting, China's plant protection unmanned aircraft has developed independently and attracted the attention of the world. In recent years, the application of agricultural unmanned aircraft is fast, and it can carry plant protection, image acquisition, sowing and other devices to complete different operations, mainly used in the field of agricultural aviation plant protection. Internationally, the United States and Japan have more developed aviation plant protection technology. Japan applied oil-powered single-rotor type earlier, in the operation management, engine technology and other aspects of the international leading. The agricultural aircraft in the United States are mainly manned fixed-wing aircraft, which can realize efficient operation. There is more research on unmanned aircraft, but it is rarely used in agricultural plant protection due to safety

我国植保无人飞机在装备总量、作业面积上已经发展到全球领先,飞控技术全球领先,但在喷施药装备和专用药剂的研究方面还需加强。目前全国植保无人飞机保有量超过30万台,作业面积达2.3亿亩,大疆、极飞等品牌的电动多旋翼机型能够精准导航、主动避障、定量施药,已经能够相对稳定、安全开展规模化作业服务。

China's plant protection unmanned aircraft has developed to the world's lead in the total equipment and operating area, and the flight control technology leads the world, but the research on spraying equipment and special agents needs to be strengthened. At present, the number of plant protection unmanned aircraft in China exceeds 300,000, with an operating area of 230 million mu. The electric multi-rotor aircraft of DJI, Gefei and other brands can accurately navigate, actively avoid obstacles and quantitatively administer drugs, and have been able to carry out large-scale operation services relatively stably and safely.

无人化设施栽培Unmanned facility cultivation

主要应用于果菜、花卉育苗管理、水肥一体化、病虫害防治、采收运输、加工包装等环节。欧美日处于领先水平,我国整体水平不高。

欧美日等一些发达国家自动化、智能化生产技术研究与应用方面一直处于世界领先水平,已经实现了环境调控自动化、生产过程无人化、分级包装智能化。在设施栽培中农业生产机器人也应用广泛。日本在设施种植的育苗、嫁接、移栽、采摘、植保、施肥等环节有多种农业生产机器人。以色列、荷兰、德国、英国、澳大利亚、瑞士、法国等国家均有针对本国特色农业生产的机器人研发,采摘机器人均有小规模使用。近年来美国、欧盟、日本、韩国等制定国家战略将工业机器人加快应用于农业领域,农业机器人研发速度明显加快。

Some developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan have been leading in the research and application of the world's leading level, and have realized the automation of environmental regulation, unmanned production process and intelligent hierarchical packaging. Agricultural production robots are also widely used in facility cultivation. In Japan, there are various agricultural production robots in the links of seedling raising, grafting, transplanting, picking, plant protection and fertilization planted in facilities. Israel, the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland, France and other countries have research and developed robots for their characteristic agricultural production, picking machines are used on a small scale. In recent years, the United States, the European Union, Japan, SouthKorea and other countries have formulated national strategies to accelerate the application of industrial robots in the agricultural field, and the research and development speed of agricultural robots has been significantly accelerated.

我国设施农业机械化率仅30%左右。与发达国家相比,除环境调控系统外,设施栽培自动化、智能化装备整体水平不高,还存在一定的差距。我国具有自主知识产权的农业机器人大部分还停留在样机阶段,在精度、效率和可靠性方面和国外相比还存在一定的差距。以嫁接机器人为例,国内研发的产品还需要人机协同作业。

值得欣喜的是,我国以无土栽培、立体种植、自动化管理为特征的植物工厂研发和产品水平较为先进,已有具备自主知识产权的成套技术设备,并已打入国际市场。比如,上海浦东智能种苗工厂实现了全程智能化生产。智能化栽培物流系统贯穿整个种苗工厂,联结了种苗组培车间、种苗培育车间、种苗抑生控制车间和生产作业车间四个区域,形成种苗自动输送、定点作业的流水线生产模式。与传统集约化种苗基地相比,劳动生产率和单位面积产能分别提高6倍以上。

complete set of technology and equipment with independent intellectual property rights, and has entered the international market. For example, Shanghai Pudong intelligent seedling factory has realized the whole process of intelligent production. The intelligent cultivation logistics system runs through the whole seedling factory, connecting the four areas of seedling tissue culture workshop, seedling cultivation workshop, seedling suppression control workshop and production workshop, forming the assembly line production mode of automatic seedling transmission and fixed-point operation. Compared with the traditional intensive seed and seedling base, labor productivity and production capacity per unit area are increased by more than 6 times respectively.

无人化设施养殖Unmanned facility breeding

主要应用于环境控制、饲喂、挤奶、防疫、废弃物处理等作业环节。发达国家生猪、奶牛、蛋鸡养殖已有规模化应用,我国技术装备研发能力严重滞后。

欧美等发达国家设施养殖机械自动化程度不断提高,信息化、智能化技术应用于畜牧养殖各个环节,已建成多种养殖环境自动监控系统平台,形成了适合不同饲养规模和区域特点的生产模式,特别是生猪、奶牛、蛋鸡养殖的少人化生产已有规模化应用。

Europe and the United States and other developed countries facilities breeding machinery automation degree, informatization, intelligent technology applied in livestock husbandry, has built a variety of breeding environment automatic monitoring system platform, formed a suitable for different breeding scale and regional characteristics of the production mode, especially the pigs, cows, laying hens breeding less human production has large-scale application.

我国相关研究基础薄弱,装备智能化程度不高,核心部件和高端产品依赖进口,但无人化设施养殖发展势头强劲。比如,重庆万州奇昌种猪场是现代化规模种猪场,集成应用自动喂料、自动饮水、自动清粪、自动环境控制技术,由管理系统统一控制。猪场无臭味、无污水排放,猪粪尿完全有机肥发酵后用于果园生产。种猪场常年存栏600头母猪,年出栏1.5万头断奶仔猪,除了接生和照顾哺乳期小猪外,仅需6人即可保障日常正常运行。又比如,山东民和牧业股份的少人化肉鸡智能养殖场采用自动化笼养设备,包括自动化饮水系统、行车喂料系统、带式清粪系统、自动化肉鸡收集与输送系统、舍内环境控制系统以及场内智能化管理平台,日常管理仅需30人即可饲养肉鸡近70万只,有效提升了防疫水平、肉鸡品质和养殖效率。

China's relevant research foundation is weak, the equipment is not highly intelligent, and the core components and high-end products rely on imports, but the development momentum of unmanned facilities breeding is strong. For example, Chongqing Wanzhou Qichang Pig Breeding Farm is a modern scale pig breeding farm, integrating automatic feeding, automatic drinking water, automatic manure cleaning and automatic environmental control technology, which is uniformly controlled by the management system. Pig farm no odor, no sewage discharge, pig manure and urine completely organic fertilizer fermentation for orchard production. The breeding farm has 600 sows all the year round, and the annual output of 15,000 weaned pigs. In addition to delivering and taking care of the nursing pigs, only 6 people are needed to ensure the normal daily life operation. Again, for example, Shandong people and animal husbandry shares less human chicken intelligent farms adopt automatic cage equipment, including automatic drinking water system, driving feeding system, belt type cleaning system, automatic chicken collection and transportation system, the environment control system and intelligent management platform, daily management of only 30 people can raise chicken nearly 700000, effectively improve the level of epidemic prevention, poultry quality and breeding efficiency.

从发展趋势看,无人化农业将主要应用在规模化种植、设施栽培、设施养殖领域,解决水田植保、育苗嫁接、病死畜禽处理等作业环境差、劳动强度大、精准度要求高、安全风险防范难的有关问题,市场需求潜力很大。近年来,信息化、智能化技术和产业发展步伐加快,一些产品应用成本下降90%,使无人化农业技术在生产中应用成为可能。

From the perspective of development trend, unmanned agriculture will be mainly used in the fields of large-scale planting, facility cultivation, facility cultivation and facility breeding, to solve the related problems of poor working environment, high labor intensity, high precision requirements and difficult safety risk prevention, such as paddy field plant protection, seedling grafting, and treatment of sick and dead livestock and poultry, with great market demand potential. In recent years, the pace of information technology, intelligent technology and industrial development has been accelerated, and the application cost of some products has decreased by 90%, making it possible for unmanned agricultural technology to be applied in production.

目前,我国无人化农业发展虽然具备了一定基础,但大部分还处于探索阶段,技术成熟度和经济性仍有许多欠缺,距离实现完全的无人化农业还需要经历一个长期演进过程。各地在贯彻《国务院关于加快推进农业机械化和农机装备产业转型升级的指导意见》(国发〔2018〕42号)过程中,要对无人化农业技术与装备研发应用予以高度关注,在政策、科技、项目、标准等方面积极谋划,深入推进机械化、信息化融合,促进农业机械化高质量发展,努力为农业现代化提供新动能。

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农静心
2024-04-02 09:43:18

无人农业的展会都办不起来

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时间旅行里的颗粒
2024-04-02 09:06:16

只能当个趋势来看

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云朵秧苗
2024-04-01 11:31:48

不好普及

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魅影
2024-04-01 11:13:18

一直是个新事物

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子弹再飞
2024-04-01 10:17:45

先把有人用的机器做好吧~

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