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国外智能农机发展现状

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Foreign intelligent agricultural machinery development status quo

目前,全球新一轮科技革命、产业革命方兴未艾,物联网、大数据、云计算等新一代信息化技术加快应用,深刻改变了生产生活方式,引发经济格局和产业形态深度改革,形成发展数字经济的共识,新一代人工智能化成为创新引擎。欧美及日本等主要发达国家将智能、精准、数字农业作为重点战略和优先发展方向,信息化已经融入农业生产环节以及农机化装备运用领域中,智能农机化应用有了相当高的水平,已经从农业3.0模式向农业4.0模式进化。

At present, the global new round of technological revolution, industrial revolution, the Internet of things, big data, cloud computing, such as a new generation of information technology to speed up the application, profoundly changed the way of production and life, cause economic pattern and industrial form depth reform, the development of digital economy, a new generation of artificial intelligence become innovation engine. Major developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan regard intelligence, precision and digital agriculture as the key strategy and priority development direction. Informatization has been integrated into the agricultural production link and the application of agricultural mechanization equipment. The application of intelligent agricultural mechanization has a quite high level, and has evolved from agriculture 3.0 mode to agriculture 4.0 mode.

在美国,早在上世纪60年代就开始对现代农业进化开始探索,80年代就已经诞生了精准农业的构想,到90年代政府、科研、农场等开始农业物联网的研用,获得飞速发展。进入利用通讯技术、计算机网络、全球定位系统、地理信息系统技术、遥控技术等来获取处理、传递、运用农业农村信息阶段,联合收割机、拖拉机等装载有全球定位天线接收机、产量传感器和监视器等技术,开启了农机化新科技、高性能、智能化的先河。其自动驾驶在2015年达到83%之多,GPS喷药控制达到了70%多,卫星航空影像达到50%,田间地图达到40%多,智能化多功能播种、收割、施肥作业机械及驾驶日益成熟,育苗机器人、施肥机器人也已生产使用,农业ITO技术普及率和精准农业在80%以上,形成大农场机械化和物联网联合生产,精准化农业达到世界先进水平,是最早实现农业现代化的国家。

In the United States, as early as the 1960s, it began to explore the evolution of modern agriculture. In the 1980s, the idea of precision agriculture was born. In the 1990s, the government, scientific research and farms began to develop and use the use of the agricultural Internet of Things, and achieved rapid development. Into the use of communication technology, computer network, global positioning system, geographic information system technology, remote control technology to obtain processing, transfer, use of agriculture and rural information stage, combine harvester, tractor loaded with global positioning antenna receiver, production sensor and monitor technology, opened the new technology, high performance, intelligent. Its automatic driving reached 83% in 2015, GPS spray control reached more than 70%, satellite aviation image reached 50%, field mapreached more than 40%, intelligent multifunctional sowing, harvesting, fertilization machinery and driving increasingly mature, seedling robot, robot has production, agricultural ITO technology penetration and precision agriculture above 80%, the formation of large farm mechanization and Internet of things joint production, precision agriculture reached the world advanced level, is the first country to realize agricultural modernization.

在日本,上世纪60年代政府就制定了《农业基本法》、《农业作业安全基准》和《农业机械安全装备基准》、并不断的修改和完善。形成从制造、使用到管理比较规范体系,促进农机化健康发展,围绕发扬结构调整和农机化为重点,适时建立完善农业计算机管理中心,建立起能够促进农民改善经营管理生产的农业科研推广体系和完善的社会化服务体系,提高农业经营和作业效率化的信息化网络,创新研发与之相适应的基于GPS定位系统的精准农业远程化服务系统,对收割机故障进行远程实施诊断,并能指导维修作业。研制出自动控制半喂入联合收割机,利用发动机转速检测行进速度、收割状态,通过变速机构,实现作业速度的自动控制。小型无人机、无人驾驶、小型机器人等智能机械成为新型耕作方式的设备,从而大力推广应用在耕作作物、育种、农产品销售、农业气象等领域的信息化科技,为智能化农机提供了基础。目前,主要农作物播种、收达到90%以上。

In Japan, in the 1960s, the government formulated the Basic Law of Agriculture, Agricultural Operation Safety Benchmark and Agricultural Machinery Safety Equipment Benchmark, which were constantly revised and improved. Form from manufacturing, use and management standard system, promote the healthy development of agricultural mechanization, around the structural adjustment and agricultural mechanization, timely establish perfect agricultural computer management center, established to promote farmers to improve management of agricultural research system and perfect social service system, improve the efficiency of agricultural operation and operation information network, innovation research and development of the corresponding based on GPS positioning system precision agricultural remoteservice system, remote diagnosis of harvester fault, and can guide the maintenance operation. The automatic control semi-feed combine harvester is developed, which uses the engine speed to detect the moving speed and the harvest state, and realizes the automatic control of the operation speed through the variable speed mechanism. Small drones, unmanned vehicles, small robots and other intelligent machinery have become the equipment of new farming methods, so as to vigorously promote the application of information technology in the fields of farming crops, breeding, agricultural products sales, agricultural meteorology and other fields, providing a foundation for intelligent agricultural machinery. At present, the main crops sowing, harvest reached more than 90%.

在德国,种植业和畜牧业并重,崇尚能用机械绝不用人工。上世纪70年代政府就建立了农村信息数据管理系统的农业经济模型,通过电子技术和管理系统向广大农业提供生产信息。同时,先进工业制造条件,制造出先进的自动调整、自动转向、自动识别的农业机械。推出的莠草识别喷雾器,在田间作业时借助专门的电子传感器来区分莠草,只有当发现莠草时才喷出除草剂,用量仅有常规机械的10%。芬特公司推出配置了若干个控制的单元控制和高智能化的大型拖拉机,这种拖拉机主要零件采用了能够实现独立处理功能微处器,由安装在驾驶室的终端控制来进行作业,工况的显示和指令输出。实际上,即是一个能实现独立处理信息与控制功能的计算机智能控制终端,也是针对农业机械特定使用环境而专门设计的微型作业计算机。目前,自动谷物联合收割机、起垅机、打垅机等智能农机在农业生产中广泛应用,实现从播种到收获全部机械化。小麦、谷物的生产、收储,牧草的收割、翻晒起堆、打包等全部使用机械。

In Germany, planting and animal husbandry pay equal attention, advocating the use of machinery but not artificial. In the 1970s, the government established the agricultural economic model of rural information data management system, providing production information to the majority of agriculture through electronic technology and management system. At the same time, advanced industrial manufacturing conditions, manufacturing advanced automatic adjustment, automatic steering, automatic identification of agricultural machinery. The sprayer uses special electronic sensors to distinguish weeds in the field, spraying herbicides only when found, using only 10% of the amount of conventional machinery. Fent has introduced a number of control unit control and highly intelligent large tractor, the main parts of the tractor can achieveindependent processing function microparts, by the terminal installed in the cab to control the operation, working condition display and instruction output. In fact, it is a computer intelligent control terminal that can realize the independent processing of information and control function, and it is also a micro-operation computer specially designed for the specific use environment of agricultural machinery. At present, intelligent agricultural machinery, such as automatic grain combine harvester, ridge machine and ridge machine, is widely used in agricultural production, realizing full mechanization from sowing to harvesting. The production, purchase and storage of wheat, grain, forage harvesting, stacking and packing all use machinery.

由此,可以看到欧美和日本等主要发达国家在农业领域中已经广泛应用了先进的信息化技术于农业机械上,渗透于农业生产产业链的各个环节,以信息化网络资源建立的智能农机给农业强大的技术支持,提高了农业生产技术。

Therefore, it can be seen that major developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan have widely applied advanced information technology in the agricultural field, and penetrated into every link of the agricultural production industry chain. The intelligent agricultural machinery established by information network resources has provided strong technical support to agriculture, and improved the agricultural production technology.

国外智能农机发展启示Foreign intelligent agricultural machinery development enlightenment1

1、起步早,发展快    (Start early and develop fast)

工业化和科学技术发达为欧美及日本等主要国家的农机化和智能农机起步早,发展快提供了基础,成为发展方向。均从上世纪六、七十年代就开始研发应用信息化技术,注重机械化与信息化的融合,将智能、精准、数字农业作为重点战略和优先发展方向,先后建立出台“农业技术战略”和“农业发展4.0框架等战略”。如美国于上世纪80年代起,新开始研究精准农业,在互联的基础上,延伸研发出农业物联网,至90年代,就获得飞速发展,利用先进信息技术实现了数据采集、田间耕作、播种、施肥、农药、收获等对农业及农机化生产做出精准定位,精准农业达到80%以上。日本早在上世纪80年代基本实现了农业生产过程的机械化。尔后,投入人力、财力研发推广智能农机,对农业给与高额补贴。2000年时,日本农业补贴占GDP总额的1.4%,而当年的农业总产值占GDP的1.1%,农业补贴超过了农业总产值。从农户的年收入来看,日本农户年收入的60%来自政府各种补贴,其补贴包括购置农业农机设备等,如此等等,为加快发展智能农机和实现农业现代化提供了强大支持,同时,欧美及日本主要国家的工业制造、科学技术领先于全球,农机制造业发达先进,为农业机械化及其转型升级奠定了基础。

Industrialization and developed science and technology for Europe, the United States and Japan and other major countries of agricultural mechanization and intelligent agricultural machinery started early, fast development has provided the foundation, become the direction of development. Since the 1960s and 1970s, they began to develop and apply information technology, paid attention to the integration of mechanization and informatization, took intelligence, precision and digital agriculture as the key strategy and priority development direction, and successively established and introduced "Agricultural technology strategy" and "Agricultural Development 4.0 framework strategy". Such as the United States in the 1980s, the new research precision agriculture, on the basis of the Internet, extension development of agriculture, to the 90s, for rapid development, theuse of advanced information technology to realize the data acquisition, field farming, sowing, fertilization, pesticides, harvest of agriculture and agricultural mechanization production accurate positioning, precision agriculture reached more than 80%. As early as in the 1980s, Japan basically realized the mechanization of the agricultural production process. After that, human and financial resources in research and promotion of intelligent agricultural machinery, to give high subsidies to agriculture. In 2000, agricultural subsidies accounted for 1.4% of GDP, while total agricultural output accounted for 1.1% of GDP, and agricultural subsidies exceeded total agricultural output. From the point of farmers 'annual income, 60% of Japanese farmers income from government subsidies, the subsidies including purchase agricultural machinery equipment, and so on, in order to speed up the development of intelligent agricultural machinery and realize agricultural modernization provides a strong support, at the same time, Europe and the United States and Japan's major industrial manufacturing, leading global science and technology, agricultural machinery manufacturing developed advanced, laid a foundation for agricultural mechanization and its transformation and upgrading.

2、 政府的大力支持和农业部门大力推动 (Government's strong support and strong promotion by the agricultural sector)

在国家层面,欧美及日本均从组织措施、经济手段和法律手段入手,成立了农业现代化和信息化融合的计算机中心,出资金、建法律 ,充分利用卫星定位系统,发展农业信息技术、互联网技术、机载电子技术等,为智能化农机和精准农业的研究应用,提供了条件。美国农业是一个专业化和机械化水平很高的大农业,联邦政府出资出策,农业部门大力推动,政府、州、县三级帮助建立农业(机)合作社并分别承担相应的科研推广经费,用于基础研究,新产品开发和应用。在法国,全国有13个农业装备使用合作社,负责为农场经营者购置调配使用农业机械并未农场经营者提供资信。在美国英国政府均在上世纪和新世纪初,建立集卫星定位,自动导航、遥感检测、传感识别、智能机械、电子识图等技术于一体的精准农业,并得到全面发展。成为信息化技术和农机、农业深度融合的典范。田间耕作播种收获施肥施药等农业机械全部加装有电脑控制系统和软件应用系统,根据地理位置土壤运行作物种类等情况,实现自动化耕作、精量化点播、变量化施肥等,利用智能化、自动化控制技术开展农业生产作业,并对农场、土地进行科学管理和决策。

At the national level, Europe and the United States and Japan from the organization measures, economic and legal means, established the agricultural modernization and information integration of computer center, capital, building law, make full use of satellite positioning system, the development of agricultural information technology, Internet technology, airborne electronic technology, etc., for intelligent agricultural machinery and precision agricultural research application, provides the conditions. Agriculture in the United States is a large agriculture with a high level of specialization and mechanization. The federal government funded the policy, and the agricultural sector vigorously promoted it. The government, state and county levels helped to establish agricultural (machine) cooperatives and respectively undertook the correspondingscientific research and promotion funds for basic research, new product development and application. In France, there are 13 cooperatives for agricultural equipment use, which are responsible for purchasing and deploying agricultural machinery for farm operators without providing credit for farm operators. In the last century and the beginning of the new century, the British government of the United States has established precision agriculture integrating satellite positioning, automatic navigation, remote sensing detection, sensing, recognition, intelligent machinery, electronic map recognition and other technologies, and has been developed in an all-round way. Become the model of the deep integration of informationtechnology and agricultural machinery and agriculture. Field farming sowing harvest fertilizer application of agricultural machinery all equipped with computer control system and software application system, according to the geographical location of soil running crop species, etc., realize automatic farming, quantitative on demand, variable fertilization, etc., using intelligent, automatic control technology in agricultural production, and the farm, land scientific management and decision-making.

3、 科研团队及科学家的积极探索研发推广(Scientific research team and scientists actively explore research and development promotion)

在欧美及日本等发达国家有着较广的科研团队及科学家,专注于农业农机的科学技术研究,如德国最大的联邦农业研究院,其属下有四个研究所从事着农机技术的研发,柏林大学、慕尼黑大学等也有专业的科研团队和科学家把重心,放在农机化研究上。美国农业部不仅是一个管理协作机构,也是一个科研机构更是把农业农机教育科研推广作为政府的重要职责,形成三为一体特色体系,并由农业学院承担推广,经费由联邦政府、州、县共同承担。

In Europe and the United States and Japan and other developed countries have a wide scientific research team and scientists, focus on agricultural machinery science and technology research, such as Germany's largest federal agricultural research institute, its subordinates has four research institute, university of Berlin, university of Munich also have professional scientific research team and scientists focus, on agricultural mechanization research. The USDA is not only a management cooperation organization, but also a scientific research institution that takes the promotion of agricultural machinery education as an important responsibility of the government, forming a three-one characteristic system, which is promoted by the agricultural college, and the funds are jointly borne by the federal government, the state and the county.

4、结语(epilogue)

综观以上欧美及日本主要发达国家的先进经验,告诉和启示我们、促进农机化和农机装备转型升级,要从顶层做好设计,制定规划、科学布局,上下齐心发力。建立高新技术专项补贴,向购置大型农机和智能农机的大户,农机合作社倾斜。撬动社会资本和技术,强化科研机构和科学家队伍建设,建立大学专业研究团队,关注农机生产企业,形成研究、产品、开发、应用生产体系,提高制造装备水平。大力发展互联网、农业物联网、大数据、云计算等信息技术融合农业机械化,提高智能装备,建章立法,加快土地流转形成规模,大力发展各种形式专业合作社或农业现代园。充分发挥各级农业、农机部门尤其是基层农机组织职能作用。利用财政稳定基层组织队伍,调动积极性,管好用好现有的智能设备终端等,进一步大力引导推广智能农机的使用,并积极做好社会化服务,从管、修、用,从产前产中产后?,为民?解忧、为机解忧,发展粮食生产,保证国家粮食安全。

A comprehensive view of the above advanced experience of major developed countries in Europe, America and Japan tells and inspires us to promote agricultural mechanization and the transformation and upgrading of agricultural machinery and equipment. We should do a good job from the top design, formulate planning, scientific layout, and make concerted efforts from top to bottom. We will establish special subsidies for new and high technologies, and favor large households that purchase large agricultural machinery and intelligent agricultural machinery. We will leverage social capital and technology, strengthen the construction of scientific research institutions and scientists, establish professional research teams in universities, pay attention to agricultural machinery production enterprises, form a production enterprises, form a production development, and application, and improve the level of manufacturing equipment. We will vigorously develop the integration of the Internet, the agricultural Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing and other information technologies into agricultural mechanization, improve intelligent equipment, establish rules and regulations and legislation, accelerate the scale of land transfer, and vigorously develop various forms of specialized cooperatives or modern agricultural parks. Give full play to the functions of agricultural machinery departments andagricultural machinery departments at all levels, especially the grass-roots agricultural machinery organizations. Make use of finance to stabilize the grass-roots organization team, mobilize enthusiasm, manage and use the existing intelligent equipment terminals, further guide and vigorously promote the use of intelligent agricultural machinery, and actively do a good job in social services, from management, repair, use, from prenatal production and production? For the people? We will develop grain production and ensure national food security.

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陇上云
2024-03-30 14:33:51

基本的质量问题,不能忽略

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青县草皮
2024-03-29 18:17:11

国内土地流转做好 才能用得上这个

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